Estrogen is an important hormone produced by the ovaries and in small quantities by the adrenal glands. During the menstrual cycle, estrogen levels fluctuate throughout the month. Secreted by the developing egg follicle, it aids in thickening the endometrium for ovulation and possible pregnancy. Also one of the major hormones of pregnancy, estrogen supports the production of fluid in the reproductive tract that enhances the survival of sperm by slightly neutralizing cervical secretions.
The role of estradiol in male reproductive function
Estrogen Dominance in Women With PCOS
Infertility is the inability of a sexually active couple, not using any birth control, to get pregnant after one year of trying. Problems in the male partner affect about 40 percent of infertile couples. In about 30 to 40 percent of cases, the problem is in the testes, the glands that produce sperm and testosterone the main male sex hormone. Damage to the testes can result from infections such as mumps, treatments for cancer such as radiation or chemotherapy, trauma, or surgery.
Although each hormone is identified with a specific sex, both are found in women and men. On average, women have higher levels of estrogen and men have more testosterone. In women, estrogen helps initiate sexual development. In premenopausal women, estrogen and progesterone levels vary from one stage of the menstrual cycle to another.
NCBI Bookshelf. Endotext [Internet]. In males, estrogens exert pleiotropic effects by acting on several tissue and organs, including the male reproductive system.