Floral constancy in bees: a revision of theories and a comparison with other pollinators. Abstract: Bees make choices about what flowers to visit among the options in the floral market. Bee specialization to visit only one plant species at a time is relevant to maintain the plant-bee mutualism. Angiosperms derive a clear benefit in their sexual reproduction from the fidelity exhibited by the bees; less obvious is why the insects engage in this behavior. The phenomenon of flower constancy in bees is known from more than two millennia ago yet there is no general theory that can explain all kinds of flower constancy.
The temperate forest of southern South America TFSSA has a highly endemic biota with a flora that exhibits one of the highest incidences of biotic pollination particularly ornithophily and animal dispersal particularly endozoochory found in any temperate biome worldwide. Much knowledge has been gained in the last few years on the nature of these mutualisms. In this study, we review 1 the group of animals that participate in these relationships and their relative importance, 2 the community structure of these interactions, and 3 their degree of spatial consistency on a geographical scale based on studies conducted in two or more localities at both sides of the Andes. Last, we present evidence showing how deforestation, fragmentation, and other forms of human disturbance are affecting these mutualisms.
Esas esporas pueden formarse tanto sexual como asexualmente y en estructuras sumamente diversas. En algunos grupos de plantas solo hay dos tipos de apareamiento, en otros existen miles. En esta estructura se formaran mediante mitosis los gametos haploides por lo que constituye el gametofito. Los tipos de apareamiento son mecanismos que regulan la compatibilidad en los cruzamientos entre los hongos que se reproducen sexualmente.
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